Northeast India is the easternmost region of India representing both a geographic and political administrative division of the country. It comprises eight states – Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim, and Tripura.
The Northeast region can be physiographically categorised into the Eastern Himalaya, the Patkai and the Brahmaputra and the Barak valley plains. Northeast India (at the confluence of Indo-Malayan, Indo-Chinese, and Indian biogeographical realms) has a predominantly humid sub-tropical climate with hot, humid summers, severe monsoons, and mild winters. Along with the west coast of India, this region has some of the Indian subcontinent's last remaining rainforests, which support diverse flora and fauna and several crop species. Reserves of petroleum and natural gas in the region are estimated to constitute a fifth of India's total potential.The region is covered by the mighty Brahmaputra-Barak river systems and their tributaries. Geographically, apart from the Brahmaputra, Barak and Imphal valleys and some flatlands in between the hills of Meghalaya and Tripura, the remaining two-thirds of the area is hilly terrain interspersed with valleys and plains; the altitude varies from almost sea-level to over 7,000 metres (23,000 ft) above MSL. The region's high rainfall, averaging around 10,000 millimetres (390 in) and above creates problems of the ecosystem, high seismic activity, and floods. The states of Arunachal Pradesh and Sikkim have a montane climate with cold, snowy winters and mild summers.
SEVEN SISTER STATES
The Seven Sister States is a popular term for the contiguous states of Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Meghalaya, Manipur, Mizoram, Nagaland and Tripura prior to inclusion of the state of Sikkim into the North Eastern Region of India. The sobriquet 'Land of the Seven Sisters' was coined to coincide with the inauguration of the new states in January 1972 by Jyoti Prasad Saikia,a journalist in Tripura, in the course of a radio talk show. He later compiled a book on the interdependence and commonness of the Seven Sister States, and named it the Land of Seven Sisters. It has been primarily because of this publication that the nickname has caught on.
LANGUAGES OF NORTHEAST
Northeast India constitutes a single linguistic region within the Indian national context, with about 220 languages in multiple language families (Indo-European, Trans-Himalayan/Sino-Tibetan, Kra–Dai, Austroasiatic, as well as some creole languages) that share a number of features that set them apart from most other areas of the Indian subcontinent (such as alveolar consonants rather than the more typical dental/retroflex distinction).Assamese, an Indo-Aryan language spoken mostly in the Brahmaputra Valley, developed as a lingua franca for many speech communities. Assamese-based pidgin/creoles have developed in Nagaland (Nagamese) and Arunachal(Nefamese), though their use has been on a decline in recent times. The Austro-Asiatic family is represented by the Khasi, Jaintia and War languages of Meghalaya. A small number of Tai–Kadai languages (Ahom, Tai Phake, Khamti, etc.) are also spoken. Trans-Himalayan/Sino-Tibetan is represented by a number of languages that differ significantly from each other,some of which are: Bodo, Rabha, Karbi, Mising, Tiwa, Deori, Biate etc. (Assam); Garo, Hajong, Biate (Meghalaya) Ao, Angami, Sema, Lotha, Konyak etc.(Nagaland); Mizo, Hmar, Chakma (Mizoram); Hrusso, Tanee, Nisi, Adi, Abor, Nocte, Apatani, Misimi etc. (Arunachal). Meitei is the official language in Manipur, the dominant language of the Imphal Valley; while "Naga" languages such as Poumai, Mao, Maram, Rongmei (Kabui) and Tangkul, and Kuki-Chin languages such as Thadou, Hmar, Simte and Paite predominate in individual hill areas of the state.
TOURIST PLACES TO VISIT
Tawang - If Shangri-La conjures up images of an earthly paradise isolated from the outside world, happy people, Buddhist chants floating in the air, and mystical monks engrossed in prayers, then Tawang is what you’re most likely thinking about. Located at a height of near about 10,000 ft above sea level, picturesque Tawang is a thinly populated mountainous tract lying on the northwest extremity of Arunachal Pradesh in north east India. It is also the seat of the 400-year-old Tawang monastery, one of the oldest and the largest monasteries in India and the biggest outside of Lhasa.
Cherrapunji - High above misty valleys and foaming rivers, ensconced in swirling clouds and perched on an escarpment, lies Cherrapunji (4,500 feet). This is a stunning location and the year-round rain earned Cherrapunji coveted entry long ago into the Guinness Book of World Records as the wettest place on earth, the place where the rainfall can be recorded in feet rather than in millimeters.
Shillong - Shillong, the capital of medhalaya, has been one of the most popular tourist destinations in the northeast india. It is situated at an attitude of 1,520 meters (4,990 feet) above sea level. It is situated on a plateau bound on the north by the Umiam gorge, on the northwest by the great mass of the Diengiei Hills that rise up to a height of 1,823 meters (6077 ft.) above sea level, and on the northeast by the hills of the Assam valley.It is also known as the "Scotland of the East" due to its striking similarity with the Scottish highlands. It is located at distance of 104 km from Guwahati, 295 km from Kaziranga, 578 km from Siliguri and 658 km from Darjeeling.
Tura - Located in the West Garo hills, Tura provides a spellbinding as well as serene environment being quite an unexplored town.This relatively large town in Meghalaya is located in the West Garo Hills. The main attraction of this town is the Nokrek National Park which is 12km from the town where various animals such as the leopard, golden cat, wild buffalo, pheasant and many more find habitat. One may also visit the Rongbang Dar Falls, while a trip to this area, without visiting the Siju caves, would remain somewhat incomplete. The entire area has the simple nature of an unexplored destination, with a shifted world.
Kaziranga National Park - Kaziranga National Park is a protected area in the northeast Indian state of Assam. Spread across the floodplains of the Brahmaputra River, its forests, wetlands and grasslands are home to tigers, elephants and the world’s largest population of Indian one-horned rhinoceroses. Ganges River dolphins swim in the park’s waters. It’s visited by many rare migratory birds, and gray pelicans roost near Kaziranga village.
Guwahati - Guwahati is a sprawling city beside the Brahmaputra River in the northeast Indian state of Assam. It’s known for holy sites like the hilltop Kamakhya Temple, featuring shrines to the Hindu deities Shiva and Vishnu. To the east, 18th-century Navagraha Temple is an astronomical center with planetary shrines. Umananda Temple, dedicated to Shiva and coveredwith engravings, stands on Peacock Island in the river.Near the large Digholi Pukhuri pond, the Assam State Museum displays sculptures, textiles and regional coins. Close by, the Guwahati Planetarium offers stargazing and light shows. In the east of the city, the Assam State Zoo Cum Botanical Garden is a vast, leafy space that's home to an orchid house and rare animals such as white tigers and one-horned rhinos.
Kohima - Kohima is the hilly capital city of India's north eastern state of Nagaland. With a resident population of 99,039 it is the second largest city in the state. Originally known as Kewhira, it was founded in 1878 when the British Empire established its headquarters of the then Naga Hills. It officially became the capital after the state of Nagaland was inaugurated in 1963. Kohima is the land of the Angami Naga tribe. It is situated in the foothills of Japfu range located south of Kohima District and has an average elevation of 1261 metres.
Sivasagar - Sivasagar, previously spelled Sibsagar, is a city in the Sivasagar District of Assam, about 360 kilometres northeast of Guwahati. It is the headquarters of the Sivasagar district. This city is surrounded by the Dehing rainforest, where the Dihing and Lohit rivers meet. Sivasagar was earlier known as kids point.
Agartala - Agartala is the capital city of Tripura, a northeast Indian state. The huge, white Ujjayanta Palace, built in 1901 by Maharaja Radha Kishore Manikya, has Mughal-style gardens with fountains. It houses the Tripura Government Museum, where displays include 9th-century sculptures. Nearby, ornate columns and pointed domes mark the Hindu temple Jagannath Bari. North, Rabindra Kanan park has flowerbeds and a puppet house.